Generic Name: Ifosfamide (eye-FOSS-fa-mide)
Trade Name: Ifex®
How is this drug used? Ifosfamide is FDA approved as third-line treatment for testicular cancer. It is important for patients to remember that physicians have the ability to prescribe medication for conditions other than those for which the drug has been approved by the FDA. Patients who have received a prescription of this drug for a condition other than which it is approved may wish to discuss this issue with their physician.
What is the mechanism of action? Ifosfamide belongs to a group of drugs called alkylating agents. Alkylating agents produce their anti-cancer effects by causing a chemical reaction that damages the DNA in a cell. The DNA damage caused by ifosfamide results in cell death.
How is ifosfamide given (administered)? Ifosfamide is given intravenously (into a vein), and the dose depends on several factors, including the condition being treated, the size of the patient, the particular treatment regimen being used and the overall health of the patient. It is typically used with mesna, an agent that helps prevent bleeding of the bladder (hemorrhagic cystitis).
How are patients monitored? Patients will usually have scheduled meetings with their healthcare provider while they are being treated with ifosfamide. Typically, blood will be drawn to check levels of blood cells and to monitor functions of some organ systems, such as the kidneys or liver. Patients may also undergo physical examinations, scans or other measures to assess side effects and response to therapy.
What are the common (occur in 30% or more of patients) side effects of treatment with ifosfamide?
• Low white blood cell levels – increases the risk of infection
• Low platelet levels – increases the risk of anemia and blood transfusions
• Nausea and vomiting
• Loss of appetite
• Loss of hair
• Hemorrhagic cystitis (blood in the urine), bladder irritation
What are the less common (occur in 10% to 29% of patients) side effects of treatment with ifosfamide?
• Confusion, drowsiness, hallucionations, coma (central neurotoxicity)
What are the possible late side effects of treatment with ifosfamide?
Patients treated with ifosfamide are at an increased risk for developing a secondary malignancy. A secondary malignancy is a new and unrelated cancer that occurs in an individual as a result of previous treatment with radiation or chemotherapy. Patients should ask their physician about the possibility of developing a secondary malignancy as a result of their treatment.
This is not a complete list of side effects. Some patients may experience other side effects that are not listed here. Patients may wish to discuss with their physician the other less common side effects of this drug, some of which may be serious.
Some side effects may require medical attention. Other side effects do not require medical attention and may go away during treatment. Patients should check with their physician about any side effects that continue or are bothersome.
What can patients do to help alleviate or prevent discomfort and side effects?
• Hydration is very important in preventing or reducing the severity of hemorrhagic cystitis. Patients should speak with their physician about the amount of fluid to drink daily.
• Physicians typically administer an drug called mesna to reduce the incidence or severity of bleeding of the bladder.
• Patients should empty their bladder frequently.
• Pay careful attention to the physician’s instructions and inform the physician of any side effects.
• Maintain adequate rest and nutrition.
• Wear sunscreen and protective clothing and try to minimize sun exposure.
• If possible, avoid large crowds or people who are sick or not feeling well, as this drug may leave some patients susceptible to infection.
• Wash hands often to reduce the risk of infection.
• Eat small meals frequently to help alleviate nausea.
• If patients have been prescribed an anti-nausea medication, they should be sure to take the prescribed doses.
• Avoid activities that may cause injury or bruising.
• Use a soft toothbrush and an electric razor to prevent cuts on the mouth or skin.
Are there any special precautions patients should be aware of before starting treatment?
• Patients should inform their physician if they are pregnant, breastfeeding or planning a family in the near future. This drug may cause birth defects. It is important to use some kind of birth control while undergoing treatment. Also, patients may want to talk to their physician if they are considering having children in the future, since some drugs may cause fertility problems.
• It is important that patients inform their physician of any pre-existing conditions (chicken pox, heart disease, kidney disease, liver disease, lung disease, etc.) as they may worsen with this drug.
• Patients should inform their physician of any other medication they are taking (whether prescription or over-the-counter, including vitamins, herbs, etc.) as they may interfere with treatment.
• Patients should check with their physician before starting any new drug or nutritional supplement.
• Patients should inform their physician of any known drug or food allergies or any reactions to medications they have experienced in the past.
When should patients notify their physician?
• Blood in the urine, painful urination
• Persistant or extreme nausea or vomiting
• Unable to eat/drink for 24 hours
• Excessive sleepiness, tiredness, weakness, hallucinations, confusion
• Flu or cold-like symptoms - fever, chills, sore throat, cough
• Signs of infection – redness, swelling, pus, tenderness
• Difficulty breathing
• Swelling of extremitites
• Mouth sores
What is a package insert?
A package insert is required by the FDA and contains a summary of the essential scientific information needed for the safe and effective use of the drug for healthcare providers and consumers. A package insert typically includes information regarding specific indications, administration schedules, dosing, side effects, contraindications, results from some clinical trials, chemical structure, pharmacokinetics and metabolism of the specific drug. By carefully reviewing the package insert, you will get the most complete and current information about how to safely use this drug. If you do not have the package insert for the drug you are using, your pharmacist or physician may be able to provide you with a copy.
Copyright © 2010 CancerConnect Last updated 07/10.
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