The U.S. Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer has released a consensus update regarding colonoscopy surveillance—and the guidelines indicate that average-risk patients who have a clean colonoscopy can wait 10 years between exams.
Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Colorectal cancer often begins with the development of an adenomatous polyp. These polyps often take 10 to 15 years to transform into cancer. Because this development phase is so long, screening and early detection can play a role in the prevention of colorectal cancer, as detection and removal of the polyps can prevent the development of the disease.
For people at average risk of colorectal cancer, the American Cancer Society recommends that routine screening begin at age 50. There are many screening tests available, but colonoscopy remains the gold standard. During a colonoscopy, a physician examines the full length of the large intestine and removes polyps.
The recommended interval between colonoscopies—sometimes referred to as surveillance—varies depending on the individual results of the test. In general, a higher rate of polyps leads to a recommendation for shorter screening intervals. Guidelines for colorectal cancer surveillance were published in 2006. The U.S. Multisociety Task Force—which is comprised of representatives of the American College of Gastroenterology, the American Gastroenterological Association and the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy—recently evaluated those guidelines to determine if they should change based on new data. What they found was that new evidence supported the existing guidelines.
Although the guidelines will continue to be evaluated as new evidence becomes available, for now the task force recommends the following surveillance schedule:
|If the initial exam finds:||Then, the next colonoscopy should take place in:|
|No polyps or small (<10 mm) hyperplastic polyps in the rectum or sigmoid colon||
|Low-risk adenomas defined as 1-2 tubular adenomas <10mm||
|Serrated lesion <10mm, non-dysplastic||
|Benign, but high-risk neoplastic polyps, including: adenoma >10mm, or with villous histology, high grade dysplasia; three or more adenomas; sessile serrated lesions which are dysplastic and/or >10mm||
The full guidelines are quite detailed and provide thorough advice on all aspects of colorectal cancer screening. Some other highlights:
Lieberman DA, Rex, DK, Winawer SJ, et al. Guidelines for Colonoscopy Surveillance After Screening and Polypectomy: A Consensus Update by the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer. Gastroenterology 2012; September; 143(3): 844-857.